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Dyspepsia


Dyspepsia is basically recurrent or persistent pain or discomforts that is primarily located in the upper abdomen.

What is dyspepsia (indigestion)?

Dyspepsia refers to a condition (disease) in which there are upper abdominal symptoms which may include upper abdominal pain, bloating (a feeling of abdominal fullness without objective abdominal distention), early satiety (a feeling of unusual fullness with very little intake of food), nausea, or belching. The symptoms often are provoked by eating.

Dyspepsia is considered a functional disease. Functional diseases are diseases in which no abnormalities can be seen anatomically, for example, on x-rays, or histologically under the microscope. The abnormalities are believed to be due to altered function, primarily of the muscles and nerves of the gastrointestinal tract. Another functional disease is irritable bowel syndrome or IBS.

What are the symptoms of dyspepsia (indigestion)?

We usually think of symptoms of dyspepsia as originating from the upper gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and first part of the small intestine. These symptoms include:

Upper abdominal pain (above the navel),
Belching,
Nausea (with or without vomiting),
Abdominal bloating (the sensation of abdominal fullness without objective distention),
Early satiety (the sensation of fullness after a very small amount of food), and,
Possibly, abdominal distention (swelling as opposed to bloating).
The symptoms most often are provoked by eating, which is a time when many different gastrointestinal functions are called upon to work in concert. This tendency to occur after meals is what gave rise to the notion that dyspepsia might be caused by an abnormality in the digestion of food.

Belching: It is appropriate to discuss belching in detail since it is a commonly misunderstood symptom associated with dyspepsia. Belching, also known as burping or eructating, is the act of expelling gas from the stomach out through the mouth. The usual cause of belching is a distended (inflated) stomach that is caused by swallowed air or gas. The common reasons for swallowing large amounts of air (aerophagia) or gas are gulping food or drink too rapidly, anxiety, and carbonated beverages. People often are unaware that they are swallowing air.

Excessive air in the stomach is not the only cause of belching. For some people, belching becomes a habit and does not reflect the amount of air in their stomachs. For others, belching is a response to any type of abdominal discomfort and not just to discomfort due to increased gas. Everyone knows that when they have mild abdominal discomfort, belching often relieves the problem.

What are the other causes dyspepsia (indigestion)?

It's not surprising that many gastrointestinal diseases have been associated with dyspepsia. However, many non-gastrointestinal diseases like diabetes, thyroid disease, hyperparathyroidism (overactive parathyroid glands), and severe kidney disease also have been associated with dyspepsia. It is not clear, however, how these non-gastrointestinal diseases might cause dyspepsia.
A second important cause of dyspepsia is drugs like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs such as ibuprofen), antibiotics, and estrogens.

What is the course of dyspepsia (indigestion)?

Dyspepsia is a chronic disease that usually lasts years, if not a lifetime.

What is the course of dyspepsia (indigestion)?

Dyspepsia is a chronic disease that usually lasts years, if not a lifetime.

Do's & Don'ts for dyspepsia (Indigestion)

Regularly do exercise as it keeps your body in shape, keeps weight under control, and prevents indigestion.
Drink plenty of water.
Eat simple and light foods, green and fibrous vegetables, low fat, and less oily foods.
Always wear comfortable and good fabric cloth.
Get rid of smoking habit as it causes not only indigestion but various other diseases.
Relax yourself by doing meditation and yoga and keep a good balance between work and rest.
Avoid alcohol, caffeine, tea, beverages and chocolates as all these create more complication and causes indigestion.
Avoid playing and doing heavy physical work just after your lunch.
Avoid taking heavy meals eating 4-5 small meals is better than eating one heavy meal. Overeating also causes indigestion.

What is treatment of dyspepsia:

Traditional therapies used for this diagnosis include lifestyle modification like:
Avoid fatty foods (which can slow the emptying of the stomach)
Eat frequent and small meals
Avoid spicy food, coffee and citrus food
Avoid the use of certain medications that may irritate the stomach lining, such as Aspirin, Brufen, Combiflam or Flexon
Cessation of smoking
Slim down - excess weight makes you more prone to Dyspepsia

Acid reducing medications:

Medications that inhibit or reduce the production of stomach acid (eg, H2 blockers [antagonists] such as Histac EVT or proton pump inhibitors such as Pantocid or Omez). Medications that promote efficient emptying of the stomach like cisapride There also may be a role for anti-depressant drugs along with dietary changes

Treatment in dyspepsia is primarily with education as well as with suitable drugs depending upon the patient's need Future advances in the treatment of dyspepsia depend on a clearer understanding of its cause(s).