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Streptococcal


Streptococcal infections are any type of bacterial infection caused by the streptococcus. There are two groups of infection.

(A) Scarlet Fever

Scarlet fever is an infectious disease which most commonly affects 4-8 years old children and also known as scar latina. It is caused by a group i.e. streptococcus Pyogenes (group A strep).Most of the clinical features are caused by erythrogenic toxin i.e. a substance produced by the bacterium streptococcus pyogenes and is infected by a certain bacteriophage.

Symptoms

a) Sandpaper like rashes.
b) Strawberry like tongue.
c) Sometimes fever, nausea, vomiting, sore throat, headache.
d) Swollen glands.

Method of spread

a) Scarlet fever is usually spread by inhalation or by skin contacts.
b) Close contact with patients .
c) It also spread by sneezing or coughing.

Incubation period

(the period between the initial infection and the appearance of symptoms)
1-3 days from date of contact.

Communicable period

(the time during which an infectious agent may be transferred directly or indirectly)
a) If untreated, 10-21 days or longer.
b) 24 hours after start of antibiotic therapy.

Control

a) Stay home as long as directed by physician.
b) Careful to disposal of tissues soiled with nose and throat discharge.

What to do

a) Antibiotic treatment, as suggested by the doctors.
b) Control fever with acetaminophen or as doctors recommended.
c) Full course of antibiotics.

Prevention

a) Careful hand washing and food handling.
b) Avoid sharing utensils, linens, towels or other personal items.
c) Children should stay home for at least 24 hours after starting antibiotics.

(B) Strep Throat

Strep throat is a bacterial infection in throat and tonsils .It is caused by streptococcal bacteria .

Symptoms

a) Fever.
b) Very sore throat.
c) Swollen tonsils and lymph nodes.
d) White or yellow spots on the back of a bright red throat, red skin rashes, vomiting.

Incubation period

(the period between the initial infection and the appearance of symptoms)
1-3 days from date of contact.

Communicable period

(the time during which an infectious agent may be transferred directly or indirectly)
a) If untreated, takes several weeks or months.
b) With antibiotics therapy, for 24 hours.

Method of spread

It spread by infected person to a person through coughing and sneezing

Control and Prevention

a) Avoid contact with anyone who has a strep infection.
b) Wash your hands after when you are around people with cold, any viral or bacterial infections.
c) Take good diet, plenty of sleep and regular exercise.